Fish

Freshwater resources have been the object of regulation long before the emergence of environmental protection and sustainable development concerns. International rules and principles, as well as national regimes, have been developed to regulate their navigational and other uses. These regimes, perhaps with the exception of sanitation standards, mostly treated water as an economic resource, and dealt largely with the quantitative aspect of water resources.

The emergence of environmental protection obligations and of the principle of sustainable development, as well as the increased awareness that water resources have to be managed in a holistic approach, have highlighted the need to integrate existing water regulation regimes with rules and principles concerning the environmental aspects of freshwater resources, and to regulate the quantitative and qualitative aspects in an integrated manner.

This course introduces you to the international legal framework on freshwater resources, which covers global and regional agreements.

At the end of this course, you will be able to:

  1. Describe global and regional agreements addressing freshwater resources
  2. Recall major trends and lessons learned in national legislation regulating freshwater resources

The course is comprised of 4 short units. Each unit includes a book with links to the InforMEA glossary and relevant documents and websites, additional materials and videos.

It will take you 90 minutes approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials. You can manage your time as you wish and retake the course whenever it is more convenient for you. After completing all the units and passing the quiz with an 80% of correct responses, you will receive a certificate of completion.

"This course has been developed by UNEP and it is based on UNEP´s Training Manual on International Environmental Law. In case of any discrepancy with the content of the Convention, its Protocol and UNECE guiding materials, the original text of the documents shall prevail and can be found here"

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Marine and coastal areas are home to a wide variety of ecosystems, for example, coral reefs found in both tropical and temperate areas, sea-grass beds and mangrove forests. Most of these ecosystems support a diverse spectrum of marine life, ranging from top predators such as marine mammals to organisms such as algae, which are at the bottom of the food web. Maintaining the abundance within and the biodiversity of these ecosystems is crucial for fisheries worldwide, including aquaculture. For many people throughout the world, the marine environment is not only a vital source of protein, but the activities which it sustains, such as fisheries, transport and tourism, also provides them with an income. 

All of these activities have an impact on the marine environment and possibly on biodiversity. The most serious threats to marine biodiversity are degradation and loss of habitats, overexploitation and indiscriminate fishing practices, marine pollution, invasive alien species and climate change. The expansion in types of uses of the marine environment as well as their intensity has not always been accompanied with adequate regulation at the national, regional or global levels. Also, if such regulation was in fact in place, compliance has often been inadequate to prevent serious adverse consequences for marine biodiversity. 

This course introduces you to the international legal framework on marine biodiversity, which covers global and regional legally binding and non-legally binding agreements.

At the end of this course, you will be able to:

  1. Recall the impact of human activities on marine biodiversity
  2. Identify global and regional agreements and initiatives addressing the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity

The course is comprised of 10 short units. Each unit includes a book with links to the InforMEA glossary and relevant documents and websites, additional materials and videos.

It will take you 3 hours approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials. You can manage your time as you wish and retake the course whenever it is more convenient for you. After completing all the units and passing the quiz with an 80% of correct responses, you will receive a certificate of completion.

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Seas and oceans perform important ecological functions and provide many benefits to human beings. They are home to numerous animals, plants and other marine organisms that form marine ecosystems and support the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people. Diverse marine organisms and their genetic resources could hold cures for many of the ailments that we face. Marine fishing is fundamental to the economies of many countries.

Fish and many other marine organisms cannot survive in polluted waters that are toxic to them. Marine organisms that are used for food can become contaminated with substances such as mercury, which is harmful to human beings. In addition to chemical substances, items like fishing lines, metal rings, straps, glass and plastics hamper the mobility of marine animals.

Land-based sources account for the 82% of the total marine pollution. They include sewage outfalls, industrial discharges, runoff from urban storm-water and agriculture, river borne and airborne pollution, and litter. Vessel-based sources include operational discharges such as bilge water discharges, but not the operation of a vessel for the purpose of discharging waste, as that is dumping. Pollution from vessels can take the forms of oil, chemicals, lost cargo and equipment, sewage, garbage, fumes and invasive exotic species. Dumping is the deliberate disposal of wastes at sea. Offshore activity generates minor pollution primarily through the use of oily drilling muds and by production blow outs.

This course introduces you to the international legal framework on marine pollution, which covers global and regional legally binding and non-legally binding agreements addressing different sources of pollution.

At the end of this course, you will be able to:

  1. Define and distinguish different sources of marine pollution 
  2. Identify global and regional agreements and initiatives addressing marine pollution 

The course is comprised of 6 units. Each unit includes a book with links to the InforMEA glossary and relevant documents and websites, additional materials and videos.

It will take you 1 and a half hours approximately to complete the course, excluding additional materials. You can manage your time as you wish and retake the course whenever it is more convenient for you. After completing all the units and passing the quiz with an 80% of correct responses, you will receive a certificate of completion.

COURSE AVAILABLE IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH

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